35 Prior to rumors of the acquisition, Intuit’s stock traded at 40 3/4. John Eckhouse, Giant Microsoft Shopping Intuit to own $step one.5 Billion, San Francisco Chronicle, Oct. 14, 1994, at A1, A19. 336 Microsoft shares at the closing. Id. Based on Microsoft’s January 3, 1995 closing price of 60 3/16, each Intuit share receives over $80.
36 Get a hold of Brian Livingston, Undocumented Windows Calls, InfoWorld, Nov. 16, 199″2, at 98 (Ex. 19); Doug Barney and Ilan Greenberg, ISVs Moisten Microsoft Furor for OLE, InfoWorld, July 18, 1994, at 1.
38 Microsoft makes numerous presentations within the nation you to especially get this part and you will written papers from these presentations has been offered to the Justice Company.
39 For a more thorough discussion, see Miles B. Keyhoe, , HP Professional, Aug. 1994, at 40 (Ex. 17). Discover along with Microsoft Corporation, House windows NT and you can Consumer-Machine Computing, May 1993.
42 „Installed base“ in the economic literature „means the number of owners of a good who may be dependent on the manufacturer of the good for the provision of complementary goods.“ Joseph Katten, Markets Fuel about Visibility regarding an equipped Feet, 62 Antitrust L.J. 1, 4 (1993).
43 Joseph Farrell and Garth Saloner, Strung Base and you will Compatibility: Invention, Equipment Pre-Notices, and you may Predation, Amer. Econ. Rev., Dec. 1986, at 940; Janusz A. Ordover and Garth Saloner, Predation, Monopolization, and Antitrust, in Handbook from Industrial Business 537, 565 (R. C. Schmalensee and R. Willis eds., 1989).
46 Look for, age.grams., Paul A. David, Clio therefore the Business economics regarding QWERTY, Amer. Econ. Rev., May 1985, at 332; David A. Harvey, Change is needed – Now!, Byte, Oct. 1, 1991, at 119.
48 Joer. Econ. Rev., Dec. 1986, supra, at 942; Jean Tirole, The idea off Commercial Business at 405, n.40 (1988)
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51 For the theoretical literature see, for example, the recent Symposium towards Circle Externalities in the Journal of Economic Perspectives, Spring 1994, the Symposium towards Being compatible, edited by Richard Gilbert in the Journal of Industrial Economics, March 1992, and the survey by Paul David and Shane Greenstein in the Economics of Innovation and New Technology, 1990. For an application to telecommunications, see Stanley Besen and Garth Saloner, The fresh new Business economics out-of Interaction Requirements, in the Changing the guidelines: Technological Alter, Worldwide Race, and Regulation for the-Telecommunications 177 (1989); for applications to broadcasting, see Stanley Besen and Leland Johnson, Compatibility Criteria, Race, and you may Advancement throughout the Sending out Community (1986); for applications to ATMs, see Garth Saloner and Andrea Shepard, forthcoming in the Rand Journal of Economics, and Steven Salop, Deregulating Notice-Managed Mutual Atm Systems, Econ. of Innov. and New Tech., 1990; and for computers, see Garth Saloner, Econ. Innov. New Tech., 1990, supra.
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52 This „network effect“ has been described by numerous authors. In a recent Symposium in the Journal of Economic Perspectives, Michael Katz and Carl Shapiro write, „Consequently, as has long been recognized, the demand for a network good is a function of both its price, and the expected size of the network.“ See also Jeffrey Rohlfs, A concept of Interdependent Demand for a communications Solution, Bell J. of Econ https://datingranking.net/talkwithstranger-review/., Spring 1974, for an early reference, as well as Michael Katz and Carl Shapiro, Network Externalities, Race, and you can Being compatible, Amer. Econ. Rev., er. Econ. Rev., Dec. 1986, supra: and other papers cited in Michael If, am and Carl Shapiro, Expertise Battle and you may System Outcomes, J. of Econ. Perspectives, Spring 1994.
53 See Julio J. Rotemberg and Garth Saloner, Interfirm Race and Cooperation, Strategic Options, 1991, for an example of the power of network size.